John M. Levesque's A Guidebook to Fortran on Supercomputers PDF

By John M. Levesque

ISBN-10: 0124447600

ISBN-13: 9780124447608

Contents: creation; Supercomputer structure; Fortran; Vectorization of Fortran courses. Index. This booklet explains intimately either the underlying structure of latest supercomputers and the style during which a compiler maps Fortran code onto that structure. most crucial, the constructs fighting complete optimizations are defined, and particular concepts for restructuring a software are supplied

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1 Machine-Independent Optimizations All compilers search source code for certain constructs that can be optimized by simplifying them, replacing them, or moving them. Writing code that aids the compiler in recognizing such constructs will reduce the number of opera­ tions to be performed by our program. We base our examples in a loop context, but many of the techniques can be used to an advantage in serial code as well. Please note that some of these techniques involve rearranging the order of execution of the operations in our expressions.

These instructions can be used to vectorize the following loop: DO 2090 1 = 1 , 10000, 10 A(I) = B(I) + C(I) 2090 CONTINUE Here the vector pipeline cannot directly fetch or store every tenth item of data. So the vector stream unit issues gather-periodic instructions to fetch the necessary data from the B and C arrays and stores the data into temporary contiguous arrays in memory. Then these temporary arrays are added in the vector pipeline with another temporary array created to hold contiguous results.

3 Register-to-Register Vector Processors These machines move data from memory to vector registers and perform computations with vector-register operands, placing results again into vector registers. These results are either retained for further use or stored back into memory. The first register-to-register vector processor was the Cray-1, and the same architecture has been used in the follow-on machines, the Cray-IS, the Cray X-MP and the Cray-2. In fact, all other vector processors except the CYBER 205 and ETA 10 are register-to-register machines, remarkably similar to the Cray computers in basic features.

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A Guidebook to Fortran on Supercomputers by John M. Levesque

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